• Uthman ibn Affan RA – URS 18 Dhul Hijjah

    Uthman ibn Affan RA – URS 18 Dhul Hijjah

    uthmanibnaffanra-urs

    The Holy Prophet (SWS) said of Uthman RA;

    “Should I not be modest infront of the man who even Angels feel shy of?”


    His name, lineage, kunyah and nicknames

    1 – He was ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan ibn Abi’l-‘Aas ibn Umayyah ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab.[1] His lineage coincides with that of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in ‘Abd Manaf. His mother was Arwa bint Kurayz ibn Rabee’ah ibn Habeeb ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy.[2] Her mother was Umm Hakeem al-Baydah’ bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who was the full sister of ‘Abd-Allah, the father of the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and it was said that they were twins (this was narrated by al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar).

    So he was the son of the cousin (daughter of paternal aunt) of the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was the cousin (son of maternal uncle) of his mother. The mother of ‘Uthman became Muslim and died during the caliphate of her son ‘Uthman, and he was among those who carried her to her grave.[3] ‘Uthman’s father died during the Jahiliyyah.

    2 – His kunyah during the Jahiliyyah was Abu ‘Amr. When Ruqayyah the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) bore him a son, he named him ‘Abd-Allah and took his kunyah from him so the Muslims called him by the kunyah of Abu ‘Abd-Allah.[4]

    3 – ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu was known by the nickname Dhun-Noorayn (the one with the two lights). Badr al-Deen al’Ayni said in his commentary on Saheeh al-Bukhari that it was said to alMuhallab ibn Abi Sufrah [5] : Why was ‘Uthman called Dhun-Noorayn? He said: Because we did not know anyone who married two daughters of a Prophet except him.[6] ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar ibn Aban al-Ju’fi said: My maternal uncle Husayn al-Ju’fi said to me: O my son, do you know why ‘Uthman was called Dhun-Noorayn? I said: I do not know.

    He said: No one else was ever married to two daughters of a Prophet, from the time Allah created Adam until the Hour will begin, except ‘Uthman. Hence he was called Dhun-Noorayn.[7] And it was said that he was called Dhun-Noorayn because he used to recite a great deal of Qur’an in his prayer every night, and the Qur’an is light and praying qiyam al-layl is light.[8]

    4 – His birth. He was born in Makkah six years after the Year of the Elephant, according to the correct view.[9] And it was said that he was born in al-Ta’if. He was about five years younger than the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).[10]

    5 – His physical attributes; he was neither short nor tall, soft skinned, with a huge thick beard, big boned, broad-shouldered, with thick hair on his head, and he used to dye his beard with saffron. Az-Zuhri said; ‘Uthman was a man of average height, with handsome hair and face and a bald spot; he was bow-legged [11], with a hooked nose, big calves, and long arms that were covered with hair. He had the most handsome mouth of all people, his hair came down below his ears, and he had a handsome face. It most likely that he was white-skinned, and it was said that he was dark skinned.[12]

    His status during the Jahiliyyah During the Jahiliyyah,

    ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu was among the best of his people. He was of high status, very wealthy, extremely modest, and eloquent in speech. His people loved him dearly and respected him. He never prostrated to any idol during the Jahiliyyah and he never committed any immoral action. He did not drink alcohol before Islam and he used to say: it (alcohol) destroys reason and reason is the most sublime thing that Allah has given to man, and man should elevate himself by means of reason, not try to destroy it. Similarly, during the Jahiliyyah he was not attracted to songs or entertainment. ‘Uthman also used to refrain from looking at any ‘awrah.[20] May Allah have mercy on ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu for he made it easy for us to get to know him, when he said: “I had no interest in songs, I never committed any immoral deed, and my right hand never touched my private part since I swore allegiance to the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). I did not drink alcohol during the Jahiliyyah or in Islam, and I did not commit zina.

    during the Jahiliyyah or in Islam”[21] he was well versed in the knowledge that was available to the Arabs during the Jahiliyyah, including lineages, proverbs, and the history of important-events. He travelled to Syria and Abyssinia, and mixed with non-Arab peoples, learning things about their lives and customs that no one else knew.[22]

    He took care of the business that he had inherited from his father, and his wealth grew. He was regarded as one of the men of Banu Umayyah who were held in high esteem by all of Quraysh. In the Jahili society of Makkah in which ‘Uthman lived, men were respected by their wealth and for the number of children and brothers they had, then for the tribe and people to which they belonged. ‘Uthman was regarded as being of high status among his people, and he was loved dearly. Among the evidence which points to the people’s love for ‘Uthman because of the combination of good qualities is the report which says that at the time, an Arab woman would sing to her child a song which speaks of the people’s respect and love for him: “By the most Merciful, I love you as much as Quraysh love ‘Uthman.”[23]

    His coming to Islam

    ‘Uthman was thirty four years old when Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq called him to Islam, and he did not hesitate at all, rather he responded immediately to the call of Abu Bakr. Thus he was one of the earliest Muslims, of whom Ibn Ishaq said: The first person to become Muslim after Abu Bakr, ‘Ali and Zayd ibn Harithah was ‘Uthman.[24]

    Thus he was the fourth man to embrace Islam. His coming to Islam so early was, perhaps, the result of what happened to him when he was returning from Syria. He told the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) about that when he entered upon him along with Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd-Allah and he presented Islam to them and recited Qur’an to them, and told them of the duties of Islam and promised them that they would be honoured by Allah. They believed him, and ‘Uthman said: O Messenger of Allah, I have come recently from Syria, and when we were between Ma’an and al-Zarqa’, I was about to sleep when I heard a voice calling: O sleepers, get up, for Ahmad has emerged in Makkah.

    Then we came here and heard about you.[25] Undoubtedly this incident had a positive effect on ‘Uthman and he could not forget it when he could see all the facts before him with his own eyes. How could anyone who heard of the emergence of a Prophet before reaching the city in which he lived, and found upon his arrival that what he had heard was true, then hesitate to respond to the call? No matter how arrogant a man may be, he cannot fail to submit to the truth; if he tries to ignore it his conscience will continue to trouble him until he either believes in it or dies, thus saving himself from the stirrings of his conscience.

    ‘Uthman’s quick response was not based on foolishness or rashness, rather it was based on certainty and firm belief that left no room for doubt.[26] He thought about this new call calmly, as was his way in all things, and he found that it was a call to virtue, a call to shun immorality, a call to Tawheed and a warning against shirk, a call to worship Allah and a warning against heedlessness, a call to good morals and a warning against bad morals. Then he looked at his people and saw them worshipping idols, eating dead meat, mistreating their neighbours and regarding as permissible forbidden things such as the shedding of blood, etc.[27]

    But the Prophet Muhammad ibn ‘Abd-ullah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was sincere and trustworthy; he knew nothing but good about him and he had heard nothing bad about him. He was calling for the worship of Allah alone with no partner or associate, and for the upholding of family ties, kind treatment of neighbours, prayer and fasting, and not worshipping anything other than Allah.[28] So he became Muslim at the hands of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, and he persisted in his faith, calling others to Islam in a friendly and patient manner; he was content, forgiving, kind, charitable, compassionate and generous, helping the weak and oppressed until Islam became strong.[29]

    His marriage to Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) The Muslims rejoiced greatly when ‘Uthman became Muslim and the bonds of love and brotherhood between him and them were strengthened when Allah honoured him with marriage to the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), Ruqayyah. The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had given her in marriage to ‘Utbah ibn Abi Lahab, and he had given her sister Umm Kulthoom in marriage to ‘Uthaybah ibn Abi Lahab, but when Surah al-Masad was revealed:

    “Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab (an uncle of the Prophet) and perish he! His wealth and his children will not benefit him! He will be burnt in a Fire of blazing flames! And his wife, too, who carries wood (thorns of Sa’dan which she used to put on the way of the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) or used to slander him). In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad (palm fibre)”(Al-Masad 111:1-5) Abu Lahab and their mother Umm Jameel bint Harb ibn Umayyah – the

    “carrier of wood” – told them to leave the daughters of Muhammad, so they separated from them before they had consummated the marriage with them, as an honour to them from Allah and as a humiliation to the sons of Abu Lahab.[30] No sooner did ‘Uthman hear the news of the divorce of Ruqayyah but he was filled with joy and he hastened to propose marriage to her through the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave her in marriage to him, and the Mother of the Believers Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid prepared her and presented her to him. ‘Uthman was

    one of the most handsome men of Quraysh and she competed with him in beauty and gracefulness. It was said to her when she was presented to him: The best looking couple anyone has ever seen, is Ruqayyah and her husband ‘Uthman.[31] It was narrated from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Uthman al-Qurashi that the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) entered upon his daughter when she was washing the head of ‘Uthman and he said: “O my daughter, take good care of Abu ‘Abdullah, for he is the closest companions to me in attitude.”[32]

    Umm Jameel bint Harb and her husband Abu Lahab thought that by divorcing Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthoom that they would deal a harsh blow to the family of Muhammad (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) or at least weaken them, but Allah chose good for Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthoom, which caused a great deal of frustration and anger for Umm Jameel and Abu Lahab, and they did not achieve anything. Thus Allah sufficed the household of the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) against their evil. And the Command of Allah is a decree determined.

    ‘Uthman radiyallaahu ’anhu and the Holy Qur’an

    quran-uthman-topkapi
    The method by means of which ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan and all the noble Sahabah were educated was the Holy Qur’an which was revealed from the Lord of the Worlds. It was the only source of guidance to be accepted. The Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was keen to ensure that the Muslims acquired their concepts from one source only. The Holy Qur’an alone was to be the methodology and focal point on which the Muslim individual, family and society were to be raised. The verses which ‘Uthman heard directly from the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) played a role in the formation of his Islamic personality. They purified his heart and soul and influenced him, and he became a new man, with new values, emotions, aims, behaviour and aspirations.[1] ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu was deeply attached to the Holy Qur’an. Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami narrated how he learned it from the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his words indicate how greatly he loved to live with the Book of Allah. It was narrated that ‘Abu ‘Abd alRahman al-Sulami said: Those who taught the Qur’an – such as ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood and others – told us that when they learned ten verses from the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) they would not go beyond them until they had learned the knowledge contained in them and how to apply it in deed. They said: So we learned the Qur’an and knowledge and its application together. Hence they would spend a while to memorize a soorah.[2]

    Allah says: َناُه ِكَتا ٌب ْ ن َزل َ ْی َك أ لَ ِ َیَّدَّب ُروا ُمَبا َر ٌك إ ِّ ُوا َولَِیَتذَ َّك َر آَیاِت ِھ ل ْول ُ َبا ِب أ ْ ل ْلأَ ا “
    (This is) a Book (the Qur’an) which We have sent down to you, full of blessings, that they may ponder over its Verses, and that men of understanding may remember” (Saad 38:29)

    ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu narrated that the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The best of you are those who learn the Qur’an and teach it.”[3] ‘Uthman recited the entire Qur’an back to the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) before he died. Among the most famous of ‘Uthman’s students in learning Qur’an were Abu ‘Abd alRahman al-Sulami, al-Mugheerah ibn Abi Shihab, Abu’l Aswad and Zurr ibn Hubaysh[4] History has recorded for us some of the things that ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu said about the Holy Qur’an. He said:

    “If our hearts were pure, we would never have our fill of the words of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted.”[5] “I would not like the day to come when I do not look in the Covenant of Allah (i.e. the Mushaf).”

    [6] “Three worldly things have been made dear to me: feeding the hungry, clothing the naked and reading Qur’an.”

    [7] “There are four things which are outwardly virtues, but in reality are obligations: mixing with righteous people is a virtue, and following their example is a duty; reading Qur’an is a virtue and acting upon it is a duty; visiting the graves is a virtue and preparing for death is a duty; and visiting the sick person is a virtue and asking him to make a will is a duty.”

    [8] “Ten things are the greatest waste of time: a scholar whom no one asks about; knowledge that is not acted upon; sound advice that is not accepted; a weapon that is not used; a Masjid that is not prayed in; a Mus-haf that is not read from; wealth from which nothing is spent (in charity); a horse that is not ridden; knowledge of asceticism in the heart of one who is seeking worldly gain; and a long life in which no preparation is made for the journey (into the Hereafter).”

    [9] ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu was hafidh of Qur’an, and he read Qur’an all the time. He was asked about that and he said: “It is blessed and was brought by a blessed one.”

    [10] When ‘Uthman died, his Mus-haf was worn out because he had read from it so much.

    [11] The wife of ‘Uthman said on the day when he was besieged: ‘Either kill him or leave him alone, for by Allah, he would recite the whole Qur’an in one rak’ah when praying qiyam al-layl.”[

    12] The words of Allah – َّم ْن َ ِل آَنا َء َقاِن ٌت ُھَو أ ْی َّ ِجًدا الل ُر َوَقاِئ ًما َسا ْلآ ِخ َی ْحذَ ْل َرِّب ِھ َر ْح َمَة َوَی ْر ُجو َرَةا ِي َھ ْل قُ ِذی َن َی ْسَتو َّ ُمو َن ال ِذی َن َی ْعلَ َّ ُمو َن َلا َوال َما َی ْعلَ نَّ ِ ُوا َیَتذَ َّك ُر إ ْول ُ َبا ِب أ ْ ل ْلأَ ا
    “Is one who is obedient to Allah, prostrating himself or standing (in prayer) during the hours of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of his Lord (like one who disbelieves)? Say: “Are those who know equal to those who know not?” It is only men of understanding who will remember (i.e. get a lesson from Allah’s Signs and Verses)” (Az-Zumar 39:9) – were fulfilled in him.

    quran-uthman-topkapi2
    ‘Uthman immersed himself in the principles of Islam and studied at the hands of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) instilled in his heart the meaning of those sublime verses, for he was keen to teach his companions the correct concept of their Lord and His rights over them, knowing souls were purified and their nature (fitrah) became sound. ‘Uthman’s view of Allah, the universe, life, Paradise, Hell, the divine will and decree, the true nature of man and man’s struggle with the Shaytan were all based on the Holy Qur’an and the guidance of the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

    Allah is above having any shortcomings; His are the attributes of infinite perfection. He is One, with no partner or associate, and He has no wife or child. He, may be glorified, has defined this concept of ‘uboodiyyah (complete servitude to Allah) and Tawheed in the Holy Qur’an.

    [13] ‘Uthman’s view of the universe was based on the verses in which Allah says: ْ

    ل ِئنَّ ُكْم قُ َ ُر أ ِذي و َنلََت ْكفُ َّ ال ِ ْر َض َخلَ َق ب ْلأَ ِن ِفي ا ُو َن َیْو َمْی ُھ َوَت ْج َعل نَداًدا لَ َ لِ َك أ ِمی َن َر ُّب ذَ َعالَ ْ ال َواَت َھا ِفی َھا َوَقَّد َر ِفی َھا َوَبا َر َك َفْوِق َھا ِمن َرَوا ِس َي ِفی َھا َو َج َع َل قْ َ ْرَب َعِة ِفي أ َ أ ٍ َّیام َ ل َّساِئلِی َن َسَوا ًء أ ِّ ل َّم ُ َل ا ْسَتَوى ث ِ َھا َفَقا َل ُد َخا ٌن َو ِھ َي ال َّس َما ِء ىإ ْر ِض لَ ْلأَ ِتَیا َولِ ْو َطْو ًعا ِائْ َ َتْیَنا َقالََتا َك ْر ًھا أ َ َطاِئ ِعی َن أ ِن ِفي َس َماَوا ٍت َسْب َع َفَق َضا ُھ َّن ْو َحى َیْو َمْی َ ْم َر َھا َس َما ٍء ُك ِّل ِفي َوأ َ ا أ َیا ال َّس َما َء َو َزَّینَّ ی َح الُّدنْ ِ َم َصاب ِ لِ َك َو ِحفْ ًظا ب ِدی ُر ذَ َتقْ ِ یز ِ َعز ْ ال ِ َعلِیم ْ ال

    “Say (O Muhammad (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): Do you verily disbelieve in Him who created the earth in two Days? And you set up rivals (in worship) with Him? That is the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists). He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four Days equal (i.e. all these four ‘days’ were equal in the length of time) for all those who ask (about its creation)…Then He rose over (Istawa) towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: ‘Come both of you willingly or unwillingly.’

    They both said: ‘We come willingly.’ Then He completed and finished from their creation (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the Decree of Him, the All-Mighty, the All-Knower” (Fussilat 41:9-12) As for this life, no matter how long it lasts, it will inevitably come to an end, and no matter how great its conveniences and luxuries, they are in fact insignificant. Allah says:

    ما نَّ ِ ُل إ َ َحَیاِة َمث ْ َیا ال َناُه َكَما ٍء الُّدنْ ْ ن َزل َ ِھ َفا ْخَتلَ َط ال َّس َما ِء ِم َن أ ِ ْر ِض َنَبا ُت ب ُك ُل ِمَّما الأَ ْ ا ُس َیأ َعا ُم النَّ نْ ا َحتَّى َوالأَ ِذَ ِت إ َخذَ َ ْر ُض أ َو َظ َّن َوا َّزَّیَن ْت ُز ْخ ُرَف َھا الأَ َھا ُ ْھل َ ُھْم أ نَّ َ ْی َھا َقاِد ُرو َن أ َعلَ َ ْم ُرَنا َتا َھاأ َ أ ْیلاً ْو لَ َ َنا َھا َن َھا ًرا أ ْ َن َح ِصیًدا َف َج َعل ْم َكأ َّ ِس َت ْغ َن ل ْم الأَ ِ لِ َك ب الآَیا ِت نُ َف ِّص ُل َكذَ ٍ َیَتَف َّك ُرو َن لَِقْوم

    “Verily, the likeness of (this) worldly life is as the water (rain) which We send down from the sky; so by it arises the intermingled produce of the earth of which men and cattle eat: until when the earth is clad in its adornments and is beautiful, and its people think that they have all the powers of disposal over it, Our Command reaches it by night or by day and We make it like a clean-mown harvest, as if it had not flourished yesterday! Thus do We explain the Ayat in detail for the people who reflect” (Yunus 10:24)

    He understood that Allah had created man with His own hand, and honoured him with a beautiful form and an upright posture. He had blessed him with wisdom, logic and discernment, and subjugated to him all that is in the heavens and on earth. Allah favoured man over much of His creation, and honoured him by sending the Messengers to him.

    The most wondrous manifestation of this divine honour towards man was that He made man qualified to receive His love and good that He made man qualified to receive His love and good pleasure, which could be attained by following the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) who called man to Islam so that they might live a good life in this world and attain eternal bliss in the Hereafter.

    Allah says: ٍر ِّمن َصالِ ًحا َع ِم َل َم ْن ْو ذَ َك َ َى أ نث ُ ُھ ُمْؤ ِمٌن َو ُھَو أ َینَّ ِ ْحی نُ َحَیاًة َفلَ ُھْم َطِّیَبةً َینَّ ِ ْج َر ُھم َولََن ْجز َ ْح َس ِن أ َ أ ِ َما ب ُو َن َكانُواْ َی ْعَمل

    “Whoever works righteousness – whether male or female – while he (or she) is a true believer (of Islamic Monotheism) verily, to him We will give a good life (in this world with respect, contentment and lawful provision), and We shall pay them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do (i.e. Paradise in the Hereafter)”(An-Nahl 16:97)

    His staying close to the Prophet (sal Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in Madinah

    The strongest factor that shaped ‘Uthman’s Character, brought out his talents and potentials and purified his soul was keeping company with the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and studying at his hands. ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu stayed close to the Messenger (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in Makkah after he became Muslim, and he stayed close to him in Madinah after he migrated there. ‘Uthman devoted himself to studying various branches of knowledge at the hands of the teacher and guide of mankind who had been taught by his Lord in the best manner. He was eager to learn the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah from the leader of all of mankind.

    ‘Uthman tells us how he stayed close to the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), as he said: Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, sent Muhammad with the truth and revealed the Book to him, and I was one of those who responded to Allah and His Messenger and believed. I made the two early migrations and I became the son in-law of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and I received guidance directly from him.[1] ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu was trained according to the Qur’anic method and the one who taught him was the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). The starting point in ‘Uthman’s education came when he met the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and underwent a sudden and marvellous

    transformation as soon as he met the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), coming forth from darkness into light, acquiring faith and shunning kufr. He was able to bear hardships for the sake of his new religion and its pure beliefs. The personality of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was the main attraction to Islam, for he possessed the ability to attract and influence others. Allah had prepared him and moulded him and made him the most perfect human being in the history of the world. Greatness is always loved and admired by people; admirers gather around it and remain attached to it, because of that love and admiration. But in the case of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), added to that greatness was the fact that he was the Messenger of

    Allah, the one who received revelation from Allah and conveyed it to mankind. This added further dimension to the impact on the believers feelings towards him. He was not loved only for himself as great man are loved, but also for that divine connection. For when a believer was in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), he was also in the presence of Divine revelation. So the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was both a great human being and a great Messenger; these two qualities ultimately combined and become one, with no distinction between them.

    Thus the believer’s love for the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was love for the Messenger as a human being and for the human being as a Messenger. Love for Allah was connected to love for His Messenger, and the two joined together in the believer’s heart, becoming the focal point of all his emotions and the basis for his behaviour and attitudes.

    This love that motivated the first generation of the Sahabah is the focus and starting point of Islamic personal development. Through the blessings of keeping company with the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and learning at his hands, ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu and the Sahabah attained a high level of faith. ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu studied at the hands of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and learned from him the Qur’an and Sunnah, the rules of recitation (tilawah) and how souls are purified.

    Allah says: ْل ْھ َیا قُ َ ِكَتا ِب َلأ ْ ال ْواْ لَى َت َعالَ ِ َوَبْیَن ُكْم َبْیَنَنا َسَوا ٍء َكلِ َمٍة إ َلاَّ ِلاَّ َن ْعُبَد أ إ َك َولاَ ّاللهَ ِ ِھ نُ ْشر ِ ا ب َولاَ َشْیئً ِخذَ َب ْع ُضَنا َیتَّ ْرَباًبا َب ْعضاً َ ِن ِّمن أ ِن ّاللهِ ُدو ْواْ َفإ َّ ُواْ َتَول َفقُول ْش َھُدواْ ا ا نَّ َ أ ِ ُم ْسلِ ُمو َن ب

    Say (O Muhammad (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah (Alone), and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah.” Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims.”(Aal ‘Imran 3:64)

    ‘Uthman and Jihad with the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)

    After the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had settled in Madinah he started establishing the foundations of the Islamic state he began to create bonds of brotherhood between the Muhajireen and Ansar. ‘Uthman’s “brother” was Aws ibn Thabit.[2] Then the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) established his mosque and drew up a treaty with the Jews, and he started to send out military expeditions and paid attention to laying down the economic and educational foundations of the new society. ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu was one of the pillars of the Islamic state, and he did not withhold any advice, opinion or wealth. He was also present at every major event except the battle of Badr.[3]

    To be continued in the next chapter of this most noble and honoured Khalifa and Sahabi radiyallaahu`anhu.

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