• Uthman ibn Affan RA – URS 18 Dhul Hijjah – part two

    Uthman ibn Affan RA – URS 18 Dhul Hijjah – part two

    uthmanibnaffanra-urs

    The Holy Prophet (SWS) said of Uthman RA;

    “Should I not be modest infront of the man who even Angels feel shy of?”


    ‘Uthman RA and Jihad with the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)

    After the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had settled in Madinah he started establishing the foundations of the Islamic state he began to create bonds of brotherhood between the Muhajireen and Ansar. ‘Uthman’s RA “brother” was Aws ibn Thabit RA.[2] Then the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) established his mosque and drew up a treaty with the Jews, and he started to send out military expeditions and paid attention to laying down the economic and educational foundations of the new society. ‘Uthman, radiyallaahu`anhu ,was one of the pillars of the Islamic state, and he did not withhold any advice, opinion or wealth. He was also present at every major event except the battle of Badr.[3]

    ‘Uthman RA and the battle of Badr

    When the Muslims went out to fight the battle of Badr, ‘Uthman’s  RAwife, Ruqayyah RA the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was sick with the measles and was confined to her bed at the time when the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called on the Muslims to intercept the caravan of Quraysh. ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu hastened to go out with the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), but he revived orders to stay with Ruqayyah radiyallaahu`anha and nurse her; he obeyed willingly and stayed with his wife Ruqayyah the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). When her sickness grew worse and death approached, as Ruqayyah breathed her last she was longing to see her father who had gone out to Badr and her sister Zaynab RA who was still in Makkah. ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu looked at her through her tears, his heart breaking with sorrow.[4] She departed this life bearing witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, but she did not get to see her father the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), because he was in Badr with his noble companions, striving to make the word of Allah supreme, and he did not attend her burial. Ruqayyah was prepared for burial and her body was brought, with her grieving husband walking behind it. When the funeral reached al-Baqee’, Ruqayyah RA was buried there and the attendants wept and levelled the soil over the grave of Ruqayyah RA, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). As they were returning, Yazeed ibn Harithah RA came, riding the camel of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), bringing good news that the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was safe and sound, and the mushrikeen had been killed and their heroes captured. The Muslims of Madinah received the news with rejoicing, celebrating the victory that Allah had granted to His believing slaves, but amidst the rejoicing ‘Uthman RA could not conceal his sorrow at the loss of Ruqayyah radiyallaahu`anha. After the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) returned, he learned of the death of Ruqayyah radiyallaahu`anha, and he went out to al-Baqee’ and stood over the grave of his daughter and prayed for forgiveness for her.[5]

    ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan RA did not stay behind from Badr because of any shortcoming or because he wanted to avoid the battle. He did not intend to go against the Messenger (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), because the virtue attained by those who were present at Badr was due to their obeying the Messenger (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and following him. ‘Uthman went out with the others who went out with the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), but he (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sent him back to take care of his daughter. Thus he was doing the most important duty of obeying the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) who asked him to stay behind.

    The Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave him a share of the booty and reward, so he had a share in the booty and attained the virtue and reward of obeying and submitting to Allah and His Messenger.[6] It was narrated that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mawhab said: A man came from Egypt to perform pilgrimage to the Ka’bah, and he said: O Ibn ‘Umar, I am going to ask you about something, so tell me, for I adjure you by Allah and the sanctity of this House; do you know that ‘Uthman RA was absent from Badr and did not witness it? He said: Yes, but his absence from Badr was because he was married to the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and she fell sick, and the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to him:

    “You will have the reward and the share of booty of a man who was present at Badr.”[7]

    It was narrated from Abu Wa’il RA that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiyallaahu`anhu said: “On the day of Badr, I stayed behind to look after the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave me a share (of the booty).” Za’idah said in his hadeeth: Whoever was given a share of the booty by the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was regarded as having been there.[8] So ‘Uthman RA was regarded as one of the people of Badr, by consensus.[9]

    ‘Uthman and the battle of Uhud At the battle of Uhud

    Allah granted victory to the Muslims at the beginning of the battle, and the Muslims began to wield at the beginning of the battle, and the Muslims began to wield their swords against the mushrikeen, whose defeat appeared imminent. The standard-bearers of the mushrikeen were killed one by one, and no one could get near to retrieve the banner. The mushrikeen began to flee and the women who had been singing and banging the drums began to scream; they threw down their drums and fled towards the mountain, baring their calves. But suddenly the balance tipped, because of the archers whom the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had commanded to stay in their position on the side of the mountain and not to move no matter what the outcome

    of the battle was. All but a few of them deserted their posts and came down to the field of battle seeking booty, when they saw the Muslims gathering it. Khalid ibn al-Waleed, who was the leader of the cavalry of Quraysh, took this opportunity when he saw that the mountain was bare of archers except a few. He, along with ‘Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl, launched a cavalry attack and killed the remaining archers, including their leader ‘Abd-Allah ibn Jubayr radiyallaahu`anhu, who had remained at his post with a small group. Whilst the Muslims were distracted and collecting the booty, Khalid and those who were with him attacked them from all sides and started killing them. The Muslims panicked and some of them, including ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan RA, fled to a place near Madinah, and they did not return until the fighting stopped. Another group became confused when they heard the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Concerning the group that fled, Allah revealed concerning them Qur’an that will be recited until the Day of Resurrection. Allah said:

    “Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met (i.e. the battle of Uhud), it was Shaytan (Satan) who caused them to backslide (run away from the battlefield) because of some (sins) they had earned. But Allah, indeed, has forgiven them. Surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing”(Al ‘Imran 3:155)

    But those who cannot see anything but that which is dictated to them by their whims and desires never quote the names of those who retreated except ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu. They accuse him and not the other Sahabah who also retreated. Should he have stayed on his own? If he had done that he would have exposed himself to danger.[10] After Allah forgave those who retreated, the ruling is very clear and there is no confusion or ambiguity. There is no room for blaming ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiyallaahu`anhu after that. It is enough to know that Allah has forgiven him, as is stated in the text of the Qur’an. His striving in jihad throughout his life is witness to his bravery.

    The campaign of Ghatafan (Dhu Imr)

    The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) mobilized the Muslims and set out with four hundred men and a number of horses, leaving ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiyallaahu`anhu in charge in Madinah. They captured a (mushrik) man in Dhu’l-Qussah whose name was Jabbar, from Banu Tha’labah. He was taken to the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and he told him some information about his people, and said: “They will never meet you in battle; when they heard that you were coming, they fled to the mountaintops. I will go with you.” The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called him to Islam and he became Muslim, and the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) made him the brother of Bilal RA. The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not meet anyone in battle, then he came back to Madinah with no fighting having taken place. He was absent for eleven days.[11]

    The campaign of Dhat al-Riqa’

    The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) heard that a group from Ghatafan from (the tribes of) Tha’labah and Anmar, wanted to attack Madinah, so he set out with four hundred of his companions until he reached Sirar. Before he left, the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) appointed ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan RA in charge of Madinah. The Muslims encountered a huge group from Ghatafan and the people drew close but no fighting occurred between them.

    The people were afraid of one another, until The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) led the people in offering the fear prayer, then he departed with the people. He was away from Madinah for fifteen days. [12]

    Bay’at al-Radwan

    When the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) halted at al-Hudaybiyah, he deemed it essential to send a representative to Quraysh, to tell them of his peaceful intentions and that he had no desire to fight, and he wanted to respect the holy places; he wanted to perform ‘Umrah and then return to Madinah. The man chosen to be the representative of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to Quraysh was Kharash ibn Ummayyah al-Khuza’i, whom he mounted on a camel called al-Tha’lab. When he entered Makkah, Quraysh killed the camel and they wanted to kill Kharash too, but the Ahabeesh stopped them. Kharash ibn Umayyah came back to the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and told him what Quraysh had done.

    The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wanted to send another envoy to tell Quraysh of the message of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and at first he chose ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab radiyallaahu`anhu.[13]  But ‘Umar apologized to the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and said that he preferred not to go, and he suggested to the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that he send ‘Uthman instead of him.[14] He clearly explained the reason for that, which is that it is essential for anyone who mixes with the enemy to have protection. As no such

    protection was available to ‘Umar, he suggested to the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that he send ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu, because he had a tribe who could protect him from the harm of the mushrikeen until he had conveyed the message of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).[15] “I fear for myself with regard to Quraysh, for they know how hostile I am towards them, and there is no one there from Banu ‘Udayy who could protect me.

    But if you want, O Messenger of Allah, I will go and meet them.”[16] The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not say anything, and ‘Umar said: “But I shall tell you, O Messenger of Allah, of a man who is held in high esteem in Makkah and who has more relatives and is better protected: ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.” The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu and said: “Go to Quraysh and tell them that we have not come to fight, rather we have only come as visitors to this House, respecting its sanctity. We have our sacrificial animals with us; we will slaughter them and depart.” Uthman set out and came to Baldah (a place near Makkah) where he found Quraysh. They said: “Where are you going?” He said: “The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has sent me to you, to call you to Allah and to Islam, and to enter the religion of Allah, for

    Allah will make His religion prevail and will grant victory to His Prophet. Your other option is to leave him alone and let other people fight him, then if they prevail over Muhammad, that is what you want, but if Muhammad prevails then you will have the choice of entering what the people have entered or of fighting him when your power is still intact. The war has destroyed you and taken the best of your leaders.” ‘Uthman kept talking and telling them things they did not want to hear, and they said: “We have heard what you say, but it will never happen. He will never enter upon us by force. Go back to your companion and tell him that he is not allowed to come to us.” Aban ibn Sa’eed ibn Al-‘Aas stood up and welcomed him and offered him protection

    and said: “I think you will get what you want.” Then he dismounted from the horse that he was riding, and he made ‘Uthman sit in the saddle and he rode behind him, and ‘Uthman entered Makkah and went to each leader in turn: Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Safwan ibn Umayyah and others whom he had met at Baldah, and others whom he met in Makkah. They all kept telling him, “Muhammad will never enter upon us.”[17] The mushrikoon suggested to ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu that he perform tawaf around the Ka’bah but he refused.[18]

    ‘Uthman RA conveyed the message of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to the weak and oppressed of Makkah and gave them the glad tidings that relief was close at hand.[19] And he took a verbal message back from them to the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in which they said: “Convey our salam to the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), for the One Who enabled him to camp at al-Hudaybiyah is able to cause him to enter the centre of Makkah.[20]

    There were rumours among the Muslims that ‘Uthman RA had been killed, then the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called his companions to swear allegiance to him, pledging to fight the mushrikeen. The Sahabah responded, swearing loyalty unto death[21], except for al-Jadd ibn Qays, who was a hypocrite.[22] According to another report, the pledge was to remain steadfast[23], and according to yet another report it was a pledge not to flee.[24] There is no contradiction here, because a pledge to remain loyal unto death means a pledge to remain steadfast and not flee.[25] The first one to make this pledge was Abu Sinan ‘Abd-Allah ibn Wahb al-Asadi.[26]

    Then the rest of the people came forth and made the same pledge as he had.[27] Salamah ibn al-Akwa’ swore allegiance three times: with the first group of people, in the middle and with the last group.[28] The Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said of his right hand, “This is the hand of ‘Uthman”, and he put it in his other hand.[29] The number of Sahabah from whom the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) accepted the oath of allegiance beneath the tree was one thousand and four hundred.[30] The Qur’an speaks of the people who gave the oath of allegiance (Bay’at alRadwan), and their virtue is mentioned in many Qur’anic verses and ahadeeth, such as the following:

    1 – Allah says: َّن ِ ِذی َن إ َّ ُعوَن َك ال ِ َما ُیَبای نَّ ِ ُعو إ ِ َنُیَبای ْم َفْو َق َّاللهِ َیُد َّاللهَ ِ ْیِدیھ َ َما نَّ َك َث َف َمن أ نَّ ِ ِس ِھ َعلَى َین ُك ُث َفإ ْوَفى َو َم ْن َنفْ َ َما أ ِ ْی ُھ َعا َھَد ب َعلَ ْج ًرا َف َسُیْؤِتی ِھ َّاللهَ َ َع ِظی ًما أ

    “Verily, those who give Bay’ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) they are giving Bay’ah (pledge) to Allah. The Hand of Allah is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm; and whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward” (Al-Fath 48:10)

    2 – Allah says:  ْی َس ْع َمى َعلَى لَ ْلأَ َعلَى َوَلا َح َر ٌج ا ِ ْع َرج ْلأَ ی ِض َعلَى َوَلا َح َر ٌج ا ِ َمر ْ َو َمن َح َر ٌج ال ِ ُی ِطع ُھ َّاللهَ ُھ َو َر ُسولَ ْ ا ٍت ُیْد ِخل ِي َجنَّ َھا ُر َت ْحِت َھا ِمن َت ْجر نْ ْلأَ َیَتَو َّل َو َمن ا ْب ُھ اًبا ُی َعذِّ لِی ًما َعذَ َ أ َع ِن َّاللهُ َر ِض َي لََقْد ْ ُمْؤ ِمِنی َنال ْ ِذ ُعوَن َك إ ِ َم ال َّش َج َرِة َت ْح َت ُیَبای ْم ِفي َما َف َعلِ ِ ِھ ُوب ل ن َز َل قُ َ ْم ال َّس ِكیَن َة َفأ ِ ْیھ اَب ُھْم َعلَ َ ث َ ًحا َوأ یًبا َفتْ ِ َقر

    “No blame or sin is there upon the blind, nor is there blame or sin upon the lame, nor is there blame or sin upon the sick (that they go not for fighting). And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow (Paradise); and whosoever turns back, He will punish him with a painful torment. Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave the Bay’ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakeenah (calmness and tranquility) upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory”(Al-Fath 48:17,18)

    3 – Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah radiyallaahu`anhu said:

    The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to us on the day of al-Hudaybiyah: “You are the best people on earth.”

    There were one thousand and four hundred of us and if I could see I would show you where the tree stood.[31] This hadeeth clearly speaks of the virtue of those who were present at the tree. At that time there were a number of Muslims in Makkah, Madinah and other places,  ‘Ali was among those to whom these words were addressed, and he was among those who swore allegiance beneath the tree, whereas ‘Uthman was absent that day. But this argument is baseless, because the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) swore allegiance on ‘Uthman’s behalf, so ‘Uthman is equal to them in virtue in this particular case, and the hadeeth is not intended to differentiate between them.[32]

    With regard to al-Hudaybiyah, al-Muhibb al-Tabari mentioned a number of qualities that were exclusive to ‘Uthman RA. For example, he was the only one for whom the hand of the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) represented his hand, when the Sahabah swore allegiance and ‘Uthman was absent. He was the only one who conveyed the message of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to the Muslim prisoners in Makkah, and the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) approved of ‘Uthman’s RA refusal to perform tawaf when he sent him with that message.[33]

    It was narrated from Iyas ibn Salamah from his father that the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) swore allegiance on behalf of Uthman RA, with one hand in the other, and the people said: Congratulations to Abu ‘Abd-Allah; he can perform tawaf around the Ka’bah safely. The Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “No matter how long he stays in Makkah, he will not perform tawaf until I do.”[34]

    ‘Uthman was falsely accused of not having sworn allegiance to the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in Bay’at al-Radwan, when he was absent. This is one of the accusations that were made against ‘Uthman RA when the turmoil (fitnah) arose which was aimed at destroying the foundations of his caliphate.[35]

    It was narrated that Anas RA said: When the Messenger of Allah (salA llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) enjoined Bay’at al-Radwan ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan had been sent by the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to the people of Makkah. The people swore allegiance to him, then he said: “ ‘Uthman is doing an errand for Allah and His Messenger,” and he struck the ground with one of his hands. The hand of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that represented ‘Uthman was better than their hands that represented themselves.[36]

    Sadiq-Bey-View-of-the-Holy-Sanctuary-at-Mecca_944x378

    Intercession of Uthman ibn Affan RA for ‘Abd-Allah ibn Abi’l-Sarh at the conquest of Makkah

    When the conquest of Makkah came, ‘Abd-Allah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi’l-Sarh hid with ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, who brought him to stand before the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). He said: “O Messenger of Allah, accept the allegiance of ‘Abd-Allah.” He raised his head and looked at him three times, refusing each time, but he accepted his allegiance after the third time. Then he returned to his companions and said: “Was there not among you a wise man who would get up and deal with this man and kill him, when he saw me withholding my hand and refusing to accept his allegiance?” They said: We did not know, O Messenger of Allah, what you were thinking of; why didn’t you gesture with your eyes?

    He said: “It is not befitting for a Prophet to deceive with his eyes.”[37] According to another report: when the conquest of Makkah came, the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) granted safety to the people except four, of whom he said: “Kill them even if you find them clinging to the curtains of the Ka’bah: ‘Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl, ‘Abd-Allah ibn Khatal, Maqees ibn Habbabah and ‘Abd-Allah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi’l-Sarh.[38]

    ‘Abd-Allah ibn Khatal was caught when he was clinging to the curtains of the Ka’bah; Sa’d ibn Harith and ‘Ammar raced to kill him, and Sa’d beat ‘Ammar, as he was the younger of the two men, and he killed him. ‘Ikrimah travelled by sea and a storm came. The crew of the boat said: “Be sincere towards the Almighty, for your gods cannot avail you anything here.”

    ‘Ikrimah said: “By Allah, if nothing can help me on the sea except sincerity towards the Almighty, then nothing else will help me on land. O Allah, I promise that if You save me from this predicament, I will go to Muhammad and put my hand in his; I am certain that I will find him forgiving and generous.” So he came and became Muslim. ‘Abd-Allah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi’l-Sarh hid with ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan RA and when the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called the people to swear allegiance, ‘Uthman brought him and made him stand before the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and the rest is as we have mentioned above.[39] It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Abbas said: ‘Abd-Allah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi’l-Sarh was a scribe for the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), then the Shaytan caused him to slip and he went and joined the kuffar.

    The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered that he be killed on the day of the Conquest, but ‘Uthman asked to be allowed to give him protection and the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave him permission.[40] Ibn Ishaq mentioned the reason why the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered that Sa’d be killed and why ‘Uthman interceded for him. He said: The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered that he be killed because he had become Muslim, and he used to write down the Wahy (Revelation) for the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), then he apostatized and became a mushrik, and went back to Quraysh. He fled to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, who was his brother through breastfeeding, and he hid him until he brought him to the people of Makkah, and asked for a pardon for him. Ibn Hisham said: Then he became Muslim after that, and ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab appointed him for some tasks, as did ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan RA after him.[41]

    tabuk-arabic

    The campaign of Tabook

    In 9 AH, Heraclius turned his attention towards Arabia, seeking to attack it and absorb it into his empire. He ordered his troops to prepare and await his instructions to advance.. News of that reached the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and he told his companions to prepare for jihad. It was a blazing hot summer and the country was suffering drought and hardship. Even though the Muslims could, by their faith, withstand the brutal heat and set out for jihad across the burning sands of the desert, where would they get the equipment that they needed for jihad? The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) urged them to donate, and each person gave what he could afford. The women brought their jewellery to the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and he used to it to help prepare the army, but these donations could not help much with the huge requirements of the army. The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) looked at the huge ranks of men who were preparing for battle and he said: “Who will equip them and Allah will forgive him?” No sooner had ‘Uthman heard this call of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) but he hastened to seek the forgiveness and pleasure of Allah, and thus this pressing need was met by the generosity of ‘Uthman.[42] He (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) supplied the army’s every need, down to the last rope and bridle. Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri said: ‘Uthman supplied the army of Tabook with nine hundred and forty camels, and sixty horses to bring the number to one thousand. ‘Uthman brought ten thousand dinars to equip the army and placed the money before the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and the Messenger (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) began turning it over with his hand saying, “No deed can harm ‘Uthman after today” twice.[43]

    ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu was the one who spent the most on this campaign.[44] ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Habbab spoke of the spending of ‘Uthman when he said: I was present with the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) when he was urging the people to spend on the army of Tabook. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiyallaahu`anhu stood up and said: “O Messenger of Allah, I pledge to give two hundred camels with their saddles and equipment for the sake of Allah.” Then the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) urged the people to spend on the army and ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan stood up and said: “O Messenger of Allah, I pledge to give three hundred camels with their saddles and equipment for the sake of Allah.” I saw the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) coming down from the minbar saying:

    “Nothing could harm ‘Uthman, no matter what he does after this; nothing could harm ‘Uthman, no matter what he does after this.” [45]

    It was narrated that ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Sumarah radiyallaahu`anhu said: ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiyallaahu`anhu came to the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) with one thousand dinars in his garment, when the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was equipping the army of Tabook, and the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) started turning the coins over with his hand and saying, “Nothing could harm ‘Uthman, no matter what he does after this.” [46] And he repeated it several times.

    It seems that he was the only sponsor, Allah Almighty knows best, for this new community. The Messenger (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) marched at the head of the army until they reached a place called Tabook, halfway between Madinah and Damascus. There they heard the good news that Heraclius, who had been preparing to march from Damascus, had lost his resolve and had left Damascus, giving up on his desperate plans after hehearing that the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his companions had set out to meet him. The army returned with all the equipment that ‘Uthman RA had supplied to them, but did he take anything back? Not at all, and it was unlikely that he would do such a thing. He remained quick to respond to every gesture of the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) when he asked anew for the people to spend for the sake of Allah.[47]

    His social life in Madinah His marriage to Umm Kulthoom in 3 AH

    ‘Umm Kulthoom radiyallaahu`anha is known by her kunyah and her name is not known, except that Al-Hakim narrated from Mus’ab az-Zubayri that her name was Umayyah and that she was older than Fatimah radiyallaahu`anha.[48] Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyab said: ‘Uthman’s wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) died, and the husband of Hafsah bint ‘Umar also died. ‘Umar came to ‘Uthman and said: Do you want to marry Hafsah?

    But ‘Uthman had heard the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) speaking of her, so he did not answer him. ‘Umar mentioned that to the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and he said: “How about a better idea? I will marry Hafsah, and ‘Uthman can marry someone better than her: Umm Kulthoom.”[49] According to a report by al-Bukhari, ‘Umar said: The husband of Hafsah bint ‘Umar, Khunays ibn Hudhafah al-Suhami, died. He was one of the companions of the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and he died in Madinah. ‘Umar said: I went to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan and suggested that he marry Hafsah bint ‘Umar. I said: If you wish, I will give Hafsah in marriage to you. He said: I will think about it. A few days passed, then he met me and said: I do not think that I want to get married right now.

    ‘Umar said: Then I met Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq and I said: If you wish, I will give Hafsah bint ‘Umar in marriage to you. Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq remained silent and he did not give me any answer, and I was more upset about that than I was with ‘Uthman. A few days passed, then the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) proposed marriage to her and I gave her in marriage to him. Abu Bakr met me and said: Perhaps you were upset with me when you offered Hafsah in marriage to me but I did not give you an answer? ‘Umar said: Yes. He said: Nothing kept me from answering you when you made that offer except I did not want to disclose the secret of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). If the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had decided not to marry her I would have accepted her.[50]

    The Mother of the Believers ‘Aa’ishah radiyallaahu`anha also spoke of the marriage of Umm Kulthoom to ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu. She said: When the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) arranged the marriage of his daughter. Umm Kulthoom, he said to Umm Ayman: “Prepare my daughter Umm Kulthoom for marriage and present her to ‘Uthman, and beat the daff in front of her.” She did that and the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said “O my daughter, how did you find your husband?” She said: The best of husbands.[51] It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah radiyallaahu`anhu that the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) stood at the door of the mosque and said: “O ‘Uthman, Jibreel has told me that Allah wants you to marry Umm Kulthoom for a dowry similar to that of Ruqayyah and to treat her with similar kindness.” [52] That was in Rabee’ al-Awwal of 3 AH, and he consummated the marriage with her in Jumada alAakhirah.

    Jannatul-Baqi_before_Demolitionw

    The Death of ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu

    In Jumada al-Oola of 4 AH, ‘Abd-Allah, the son of ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu from Ruqayyah the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), died when he was six years old. The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) offered the funeral prayer for him and his father ‘Uthman went down in his grave to receive his body and lay him to rest.[53] This was a great trial for ‘Uthman RA, and how many are the trials in the lives of those who call people to Allah.

    The Death of Umm Kulthoom radiyallaahu`anha

    Umm Kulthoom stayed with ‘Uthman (may Allah be pleased with them both) until her death in Sha’ban of 9AH as the result of illness. The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) offered the funeral prayer for her and sat by her grave. It was narrated from Anas ibn Malik that he saw the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sitting by the grave of Umm Kulthoom. He said: I saw his eyes flowing with tears and he said: “Is there any man among you who did not do anything last night?”

    Abu Talhah said: Me. He said: “Go down in her grave.” [54] It was narrated that Layla bint Qanif al-Thaqafiyyah said: I was among those who washed Umm Kulthoom the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) when she died. The first thing that the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave to us was the waist wrapper, then the chemise, then the head cover, then the large wrapper, then after that she was wrapped in another cloth. The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was at the door with her shroud, handing the pieces to us one by one.[55] It was narrated by Ibn Sa’d that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas and Usamah ibn Zayd went down in her grave with Abu Talhah (to lay her to rest), and that the ones who washed her were Asma’ bint ‘Umays and Safiyyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib.[56]

    ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu was deeply grieved by the loss of Umm Kulthoom, and the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw ‘Uthman walking broken-hearted with signs of grief at his loss on his face. He came to him and said: “If we had a third one, we would give her in marriage to you, O ‘Uthman.”[57]

    This is indicative of the love of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) for ‘Uthman RA and a of ‘Uthman’s loyalty and respect towards his Prophet. It also a rejection of the superstitious attitude that people usually adopt in such circumstances, for the decree of Allah is ever executed and nothing can ward off His decree.[58]

    Older Medina 1890

    Expansion of the Prophet’s Mosque

    After the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) built his mosque in Madinah, the Muslims would gather there to offer the five daily prayers and to listen to the speeches of the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in which he would issue commands and prohibitions, and they learned about their religion in the mosque. They would set out from the mosque for their campaigns and return to it when they came back. Hence the mosque became too small for the people, and the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) asked some of the Sahabah to buy the land next to the mosque so that the mosque could be expanded and made big enough to accommodate all the people. He said: “Who will buy the land of So and so add it to the mosque in return for something good for him in Paradise?” [63] ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiyallaahu`anhu bought it with his own money for twenty-five thousand dirhams, or for twenty thousand, then it was added to the mosque,[64] which then became large enough to accommodate the Muslims.

    Tabook and the generosity of Uthman ibn Affan RA

    When the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wanted to set out on the campaign to Tabook, he urged the wealthy Sahabah to spend on equipping the army that the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was mobilizing to fight the Byzantines. The companions of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) spent whatever they could afford, and ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu spent a huge amount that no one else could match. This has been described above in the discussion on his role in the campaign to Tabook. [65]

    Ahadeeth of the Messenger (sal Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) about ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan RA

    What was narrated about his virtues alongside others ‘Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of Paradise in return for a calamity that will befall him’ It was narrated that Abu Moosa radiyallaahu`anhu said: I was with the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in one of the gardens of Madinah when a man came and asked for the gate to be opened. The Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Open the gate for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise.” I opened the gate and saw it was Abu Bakr, and I gave him the glad tidings of what the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had said, and he praised Allah. Then another man asked for the gate to be opened, and the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of Paradise.

    ” I opened the gate and saw it was ‘Umar, and I gave him glad tidings of what the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had said, and he praised Allah. Then another man asked for the gate to be opened, and (the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)) said: “Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of Paradise in return for a calamity that will befall him.” It was ‘Uthman, and I told him what the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had said, and he praised Allah then he said: Allah is the One Whose help I seek.[1]

    This hadeeth speaks of the virtue of the three men mentioned, namely Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman, and states that they are among the people of Paradise. It also speaks of the virtue of Abu Moosa, and shows that it is permissible to praise a man to his face if there is no worry about self admiration and the like. And it contains an obvious miracle, in that the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) foretold the calamity that would befall ‘Uthman, and that all three would persevere in faith and guidance.

    [2] ‘Be still, O Uhud, for there is no one on you but a Prophet, a siddeeq and two martyrs’ It was narrated that Anas radiyallaahu`anhu said: The Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) climbed Uhud, accompanied by Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman, and (the mountain) shook. He said: “Be still, O Uhud”,and I think he struck it with his foot – “ for there is no one on you but a Prophet, a siddeeq and two martyrs” [3]

    ‘Be calm for there is no one on you but a Prophet, a Siddeeq or a martyr’ It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was on Hira’, along with Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, Ali’, Talhah and az-Zubayr, and the rock shook. The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Be calm, for there is no one on you but a Prophet or a Siddeeq or a martyr.” [4]

    The modesty of ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu It was narrated from Yahya ibn Sa’eed ibn al-‘Aas that Sa’eed ibn al-‘Aas told him that ‘Aa’ishah the wife of the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu told him that Abu Bakr asked for permission to enter upon the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) when he was lying down on his bed, wrapping himself in the cover of ‘Aa’ishah. He gave permission to Abu Bakr (to enter) when he was like that, and he fulfilled his need and went away. Then ‘Umar asked for permission to enter and he gave him permission (to enter) when he was like that, and he fulfilled his need then he went away. ‘Uthman said: Then I asked permission to enter and he sat up and said to ‘Aa’ishah:

    “Cover yourself properly.” I fulfilled my need then I went away.

    ‘Aa’ishah RA said: O Messenger of Allah, why did I not see you stirring for Abu Bakr RA and ‘Umar RA as you did for ‘Uthman RA? The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “ ‘Uthman is a shy man, and I was afraid that if I gave him permission to enter when I was in that state, he would not tell me of his need.” [5]

    The shyness of the angels before ‘Uthman

    It was narrated from Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman RA that ‘Aa’ishah RA said: The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was lying down in my house with his thigh or shin uncovered. Abu Bakr asked for permission to enter and he let him in while he was in that state, and he spoke to him. Then ‘Umar asked for permission to enter and he let him in while he was in that state, and he spoke to him. Then ‘Uthman asked permission to enter and the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sat up and straightened his garment – Muhammad (one of the narrators) said: I do not say that this all happened on one day – and he came in and he spoke to him. When he left, ‘Aa’ishah said: Abu Bakr RA came in and you did not stir for him, and ‘Umar RA came in and you did not stir for him, then ‘Uthman came in and you sat up and straightened your garment.

    He said: “Should I not feel shy before a man before whom the angels feel shy?”[6]

    uthmanibnaffanra-maqam

    The One who is Covering his Head will be Killed on that Fay

    It was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar said: The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) mentioned turmoil and a man passed by and he said: “The one who is covering his head will be killed unlawfully on that day.” He said: I looked and saw that it was ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.[11]

    ‘On that day this man will be following right guidance’ It was narrated that Ka’b ibn ‘Urjah said: The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) mentioned some turmoil and gave the impression that it would soon come to pass. A man passed by with his head covered and the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “On that day this man will be following right guidance.” I rushed and grabbed ‘Uthman by the (upper) arm, then I turned to face the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and said: This man? He said: “This man.”[12]

    ‘The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave me some advice and I am going to persevere with it’

    It was narrated from Abu Sahlah that ‘Aa’ishah said: The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Call one of my companions for me” I said: Abu Bakr? He said: “No.” I said: ‘Uthman? He said: “Yes.” When he came he said (to me): “Move away,” then he started to converse with him, and ‘Uthman’s colour changed. When he was besieged in his house, we said: O Ameer al-Mu’mineen, will you not fight? He said: No. The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave me some advice and I am going to persevere with it.[17]

    This hadeeth shows that deep love that the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had for ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu and how great was his concern for the welfare of the ummah after he was gone. He told him things that had to do with this turmoil that would end with his death, and he urged him to keep it secret, so that all that we know about it is what ‘Uthman stated during the turmoil, when it was said to him: Will you not fight? And he said: No. The Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave me some advice and I am going to persevere with it.[18]

    From these words of his it is clear that the Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) taught him the correct attitude when turmoil breaks out, which will stop the turmoil spreading further. In some reports there is additional statement which reveals some of the contents of this secret conversation, and states that the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to him: “If they ask you to shed the shirt with which Allah has clothed you (i.e. the caliphate), do not do it.”[19]

    The content of the advice mentioned by ‘Uthman radiyallaahu`anhu had to do with the turmoil and encouragement to be patient and not give up the caliphate, and the hadeeth indicated that he would be caliph one day.

    For the most modest, noble and honoured Khalifa Sayyidina Uthamn ibn Affan and Sahabi radiyallaahu`anhu, bir hurmati Habib bir hurmati anzalta Surat al-Fatiha..

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